Mysl v terénu. Filosofický realismus ve 21. století

 

Abstrakt (CZ)

Antologie Mysl v terénu je úvodem do myšlení soudobého filosofického realismu v rámci rozmanitých proudů objektově orientované ontologie, nového materialismu či spekulativního realismu. Úvodní studie Lukáše Likavčana, Václava Janoščíka a Jiřího Růžičky umožňuje českému akademickému a uměleckému publiku zorientovat se v základních koordinátech současného spekulativního myšlení a následujících devět přeložených textů tento členitý terén mapuje a poskytuje nejnovější vhledy do ontologie, epistemologie, environmentální a politické filosofie či teorie vědy. Mezi texty můžeme najít racionalisticky laděné statě badatelů a badatelek jako Alain Badiou, Quentin Meillassoux nebo Ray Brassier, objektově orientované a materialistické koncepce Leviho Bryanta, Timothyho Mortona, Jane Bennettové či Isabelle Stengersové, stejně jako politicko-teoretické intervence Rezy Negarestaniho a xenofeministického kolektivu Laboria Cuboniks. Tyto eseje slouží jako vstupní brány do širokého spektra debat odehrávajících se na samém čele filosofické avantgardy dneška, která se snaží vypořádat s dědictvím (post)kantovské filosofie, fenomenologie, analytické filosofie i poststrukturalismu. Novým způsobem se tak zde pokládají staré otázky poznatelnosti věci o sobě, architektury lidské kognice, postavení člověka v planetární síti mimo-lidských aktérů či možnosti univerzalistického emancipačního projektu.

Link:
https://vvp.avu.cz/novinky/vaclav-janoscik-lukas-likavcan-jiri-ruzicka-eds-mysl-v-terenu-filosoficky-realismus-v-21-stoleti/

Summary (EN)

This book provides an overview of the most recent developments in contemporary philosophical realism, in particular the emerging fields of speculative realism, new materialism, and object-oriented ontology, and is intended for a Czech academic and artistic audience. We begin by identifying what has been called the speculative turn in the philosophy of the first two decades of 21st century, and in our opening essay we introduce the main similarities and differences between the many thinkers that can be included under the heading of contemporary philosophical realism, namely the heritage of poststructuralist and phenomenological approaches on the one hand, and a rekindled interest in rationalistic, Anglo-Saxon analytic approaches on the other. Speculation arises as a way of emancipating reason from the vicious circle of correlationism, understood as the doctrine professing the fundamental inseparability of the cognitive act from its object. Departing from this cornerstone of (post-)Kantian philosophy, contemporary speculative approaches refute the status of any entity as “given” or “natural”, thus tracking the anti-essentialist trajectory of poststructuralism for the sake of creative speculation regarding the possible features of things-in-themselves. The main metaphor of the book – mind in the field, or field philosophy – embodies an imperative to regard recent philosophical developments as variations on an attempt to escape the gravitational force of correlationist orthodoxy and leap into the abandoned realm of Quentin Meillassoux’s “great outdoors”.

The anthology is organised into three clusters. The book begins with a short essay by Alain Badiou entitled The Question of Being Today, which also serves as an introduction to those approaches of contemporary realism that draw heavily on the epistemological tradition of rationalism and mathematics. In the second translated text, Potentiality and Virtuality, Quentin Meillassoux explains how we might rethink Hume’s problem of induction in accordance with the radical ontological proposal that reality is utterly contingent. Ray Brassier’s Concepts and Objects completes our rationalistic triplet, arguing – along with Wilfrid Sellars – that transparent access to the concepts by which we cognitively grasp reality is no more guaranteed than immediate access to things-in-themselves.

Essays by Levi Bryant (The Ontic Principle) and Timothy Morton (A Quake in Being) offer accounts of the fundamental ontological, epistemological, and political presuppositions and implications that underlie object-oriented philosophy. While Bryant systematically develops his theory through the concept of difference, Morton deploys the notion of hyperobjects, which he finds particularly useful when conceptualising the ecological emergency represented by the Anthropocene. In The Force of Things, Jane Bennett elaborates on the intersection of vitalist and materialist philosophies. She invites us to reconsider our anthropocentric views of objects and to grant them a similar agency as that commonly ascribed to human actors.

Finally, the last third of the anthology is devoted to the methodological and political impacts of speculative thinking. In Wondering about Materialism Isabelle Stengers discusses the consequences of new materialism for the philosophy and sociology of the natural sciences. Reza Negarestani’s Drafting the Inhuman uncovers the artful relationship between the political economy of capitalism and the necrocraticenergetic regime, while in Xenofeminism Laboria Cuboniks deliver an urgent call to drift progressively away from the false universalism of cis-heteronormative, patriarchal, Western, white and privileged reason, in a process that would culminate in the abolition of all identities and the appropriation of science and technology for ultimately emancipatory purposes.